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Photograph of Biebow and Rumkowski in Lodz

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Hans Biebow, Mordechai Chaim RumkowskiMordechai Chaim Rumkowski, president of the Jewish Council in Lodz Ghetto, chats on the street with the ghetto’s Nazi commander, Hans Biebow.

Rumkowski was a controversial leader in Lodz whose motives are still debated. Reporting directly to Biebow, he organised a highly controlled ghetto with heavy industrial production for the German military. Biebow profited greatly from the exploitation of Jewish labour, and Rumkowski believed that hard work and productivity would ensure Lodz inhabitants’ survival. However, when the Final Solution was implemented, Biebow readily adopted the extermination policy. Rumkowski complied with the deportation orders, and ultimately even he was sent to the death camps.

Donated by Chana Weinstein
M1993/010:015

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